A great number of mammal fossils that have lived for the last 20 million years have been discovered through excavations. Some of the fossil-bearing sites of our country are known, worldwide, for the variety of animal species, the large number and the good preservation of the fossils. The mammal fossils found in Greece offer a wealth of information on the evolution of life, on our planet and the connection between geographical, climate and environmental changes.
Among them, the impressive skulls of primates are of global interest. In specially designed showcases are exhibited cranial casts of the Mesopethicus species and Ouranopithecus macedoniensis, from fossil-bearing sites of the valley of the Axios river in Macedonia. Also on display is the cast and reconstruction of the “famous” human scull from the cave of Petralona, Chalkidiki, which is one of the best preserved fossils in Europe representing an evolutionary stage between Homo erectus and the current day Homo sapiens. The section concludes with tools made of flint from the Paleolithic age, that were found on Lesvos.